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Cardiovascular benefits equal moderate impact aerobics & Tai Chi

Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

1995, Volume 43, Issue 11, pages 1222-1227

Conclusion: The data substatiate that practicing T'ai Chi regularly may delay the decline of cardioresperatory function in older individuals. In addition, TC may be prescribed as a suitable aerobics exercise for older adults.



1. Barrow D, Barrow R et al. Changes in haemodynamic parameters following Tai Chi Chuan and aerobic exercise in patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction. POSTGRAD MED J 1996;72:349-351. Complementary Medicine for the Physician, 4(7):52, 1999 Sep, 4(7), 52

2. Brown, D.D., Mucci, W.G., Hetzler, R.K., & Knowlton, R.G. (1989). Cardiovascular and ventilatory responses during formalized T'ai Chi Chuan exercise. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 60(3), 246-250.

3. Taylor-Piliae R E, Froelicher E S. Measurement properties of Tai Chi exercise self-efficacy among ethnic Chinese with coronary heart disease risk factors: a pilot study. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2004; (3): 287-294.

4. Lan C, Chou S W, Chen S Y, Lai J S, Wong M K. The aerobic capacity and ventilatory efficiency during exercise in Qigong and Tai Chi Chuan practitioners. Am J Chin Med 2004; (32): 141-150.

5. Jong S Y, Fang Y Y, Chao Y F. [The effect of Tai-Chi-Qui-Gong exercises on patients' pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and quality of life after lobectomy.]. Hu Li Za Zhi 2004; (51): 46-54.

6. Ades P A, Wu G. Benefits of tai chi in chronic heart failure: body or mind? Am J Med 2004; (117): 611-612.

7. Channer, K.S., Barrow, D., Barrow, R., Osborne, M., & Ives, G. (1996). Changes in haemodynamic parameters following Tai Chi Chuan and aerobic exercise in patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 72(848), 349-351.

8. Fontana, J.A. (2000). The energy costs of a modified form of T'ai Chi exercise [corrected] [published erratum appears in NURS RES 2000 May-Jun; 49(3): 145]. Nursing Research, 49(2):91-6, 2000 Mar-Apr, 49(19 ref), 91-96.

9. Lai, J.S., Lan, C., Wong, M.K., & Teng, S.H. (1995). Two-year trends in cardiorespiratory function among older Tai Chi Chuan practitioners and sedentary subjects. J Am Geriatr Soc JID - 7503062, 43(11), 1222-1227.

10. Lai, J.S., Wong, M.K., Lan, C., Chong, C.K., & Lien, I.N. (1993). Cardiorespiratory responses of Tai Chi Chuan practitioners and sedentary subjects during cycle ergometry. J Formos Med Assoc JID - 9214933, 92(10), 894-899.

11. Lan, C., Chen, S., Lai, J., & Wong, M. (1999). The effect of Tai Chi on cardiorespiratory function in patients with coronary artery bypass surgery. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 31(5):634-8, 1999 May, 31(29 ref), 634-638.

12. Lan, C., Chen, S., Lai, J., & Wong, M. (2001). Heart rate responses and oxygen consumption during Tai Chi Chuan practice. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 29(3/4):403-10, 2001, 29(19 ref), 403-410.

13. Lan, C., Chen, S.Y., Lai, J.S., & Wong, M.K. (1902). Heart rate responses and oxygen consumption during Tai Chi Chuan practice. Am J Chin Med JID - 7901431, 29(3-4), 403-410.

14. Lan, C., Lai, J.S., Wong, M.K., & Yu, M.L. (1996). Cardiorespiratory function, flexibility, and body composition among geriatric Tai Chi Chuan practitioners. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 77(6), 612-616.

15. Lee E N. [The effects of tai chi exercise program on blood pressure, total cholesterol and cortisol level in patients with essential hypertension.]. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi 2004; (34): 829-837.

16. Li, J.X., Hong, Y., & Chan, K.M. (2001). Tai chi: physiological characteristics and beneficial effects on health. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(3):148-56, 2001 Jun, 35(44 ref), 148-156.

17. Schneider, D., & Leung, R. (1991). Metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to the performance of Wing Chun and T'ai Chi Chuan exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 12(3), 319-323.

18. Vaananen, J., Xusheng, S., Wang, S., Laitinen, T., Pekkarinen, H., & Lansimies, E. (2002). Taichiquan acutely increases heart rate variability. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging JID - 101137604, 22(1), 2-3.

19. Wang, J.S., Lan, C., Chen, S.Y., & Wong, M.K. (2002). Tai Chi Chuan training is associated with enhanced endothelium-dependent dilation in skin vasculature of healthy older men. [see comments.]. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(6), 1024-1030.

20. Young, D.R., Appel, L.J., Jee, S., & Miller, E.R. (1999). The effects of aerobic exercise and T'ai Chi on blood pressure in older people: results of a randomized trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47(3), 277-284.

21. Zhuo, D., Shephard, R.J., Plyley, M.J., & Davis, G.M. (1984). Cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses during Tai Chi Chuan exercise. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences - Journal Canadien des Sciences Appliquees au Sport, 9(1), 7-10.

22. Wang, J., Lan, C., & Wong, M. (2001). Tai Chi Chuan training to enhance microcirculatory function in healthy elderly men. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 82(9):1176-80, 2001 Sep, 82(35 ref), 1176-1180.


1. Ackerman, S. (1999). Tai chi: an exercise alternative for cardiac rehab... commentary on Channer KS,

2. Fontana, J.A., Colella, C., Baas, L.S., & Ghazi, F. (2000). T'ai Chi Chih as an intervention for heart failure. [Review] [52 refs]. Nursing Clinics of North America, 35(4), 1031-1046.

3. Jeng, C., Chu, F.L., & Tsao, L.I. (2002). Empowering: the experiences of exercise among heart transplantation patients in Taiwan. J Adv Nurs JID - 7609811, 40(5), 560-567.

4. Kreitzer, M.J., & Snyder, M. (2002). Healing the heart: integrating complementary therapies and healing practices into the care of cardiovascular patients. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing, 17(2):73-80, 2002 Spring, 17(36 ref), 73-80.

5. Luskin, F.M., Newell, K.A., Griffith, M., Holmes, M., Telles, S., Marvasti, F.F., Pelletier, K.R., & Haskell, W.L. (1998). A review of mind-body therapies in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Part 1: Implications for the elderly. [Review] [181 refs]. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 4(3), 46-61.

6. Oz, M. (1999). Bypass surgery and Tai Chi. Newsweek, 134(24A Spec Ed):84-7, 1999 Dec-2000 Feb, 134(24A Spec Ed), 84-87.

7. Whyte, N. (1997). Tai Chi for clients in cardiac rehabilitation. Ot Practice, 2(10):38-41, 1997 Oct, 2(10 bib), 38-41.

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